Frequently Asked Questions

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Installation

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Why do I get the message "Failed to open Monitor.mdb"?

When running PEL on a network, users require Read & Write privileges to the folder PEL\Licence and file monitor.mdb in that folder.

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Why do I get following error "PEL\Apps\PPDS_Master.mdb is not a valid path" when running PhysPack?

This can happen due to one of the following:

  1. PEL was installed to a particular location and then subsequently moved somewhere else.

  2. The user has a different letter mapped to the server where PEL was installed

  3. PEL was installed directly onto the server PC rather than via a client (not recommended)

The file mentioned in the above error message, PPDS_Master.mdb, contains the location of the original installation.

Follow the steps below to insert the new location into this file:

  1. Make sure there are no other users running PhysPack.

  2. Open the file PPDS_Master.mdb from the PEL\Apps folder

  3. Open HEADMASTER table. (See below as example)

  4. Edit the column SDB_UNCFileName to the path where PEL is now installed. For network installations we recommend that you use the UNC rather than the server letter. If you use a letter all users must have that same letter mapped to the server.

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Why do I get "unavailable" when selecting a component from PhysPack?

This is because y ou do do not have Full Control privileges on the Server32 key in the Registry. You will require Admin privileges to change this. If you are so authorised,click Start | Run and enter RegEdit to open the Registry Editor. Select the folder HKEY_LOCAL_Machine | Software | NEL | Server32 then right-mouse click and select Permissions from the pop-up menu. If this has been disabled on your PC then please contact your IT department.

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Why do I get "Failed to Print. ActiveX component can't create object" when trying to print datasheets improved?

The file VBPrnDlg.dll needs to be registered . You can do this by dragging it over file REGSVR32.exe in the PEL\Apps folder.

 

PhysPack

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Why do I get the error "PEL\Apps\PPDS_Master.mdb is not a valid path"?

This can happen due to one of the following:

  1. PEL was installed to a particular location and then subsequently moved somewhere else.

  2. The user has a different letter mapped to the server where PEL was installed

  3. PEL was installed directly onto the server PC rather than via a client (not recommended)

The file mentioned in the above error message, PPDS_Master.mdb, contains the location of the original installation.

Follow the steps below to insert the new location into this file:

  1. Make sure there are no other users running PhysPack.

  2. Open the file PPDS_Master.mdb from the PEL\Apps folder

  3. Open HEADMASTER table. (See below as example)

  4. Edit the column SDB_UNCFileName to the path where PEL is now installed. For network installations we recommend that you use the UNC rather than the server letter. If you use a letter all users must have that same letter mapped to the server.

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Why do I get "unavailable" when selecting a component?

This is because y ou do do not have Full Control privileges on the Server32 key in the Registry. You will require Admin privileges to change this. If you are so authorised,click Start | Run and enter RegEdit to open the Registry Editor. Select the folder HKEY_LOCAL_Machine | Software | NEL | Server32 then right-mouse click and select Permissions from the pop-up menu. If this has been disabled on your PC then please contact your IT department.

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How do I change units of dimension from a molar to a mass basis?

On the Units tab, click Select Mass Units . This will give you a consistent set of mass units for all properties. You can also change the units for an individual property by clicking the unit cell of the property you want to change then either right-mouse click and select from the drop-down list, or simply type in the dimension. For example, for density type lb/ft3 and press Return .

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How do I find component Xylene?

You need to specify which isomer you want - m-Xylene, o-Xylene or p-Xylene.Entering XYLENE in PhysPack does not match any of these. You have to enter either the first few characters of the isomer required (e.g. m-XY )or enter a wildcard e.g. *XYLENE or *XYL* (or similar) to display a list containing all the required names.

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How do I calculate the dew point of a mixture?

On the Specification tab, select VL Equilibrium as the type of calculation then select Dew Point from the drop-down list for the second variable whose default is Temperature.

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How do I find the Flash Point of NON-1-ENE?

From the Components tab, check Pure Component , enter NON in the Search box and select NON-1-ENE from the Search Results. Focus automatically switches to the Constants tab displaying all the constant properties for non-1-ene including the Flash Point.

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How do I print the results?

Right-mouse click on the results spreadsheet and select Print Results as a Table from the pop-up menu. You can either print the whole table or highlight a section of the table and print the results selected.

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Which standard of the Steam Tables does PhysPack conform to?

The Steam Package is a full representation of the IAPS84 Tables with additional approved data for thermal conductivity and viscosity. There is also an option of the latest IAPS95 /IAPS97 Tables.

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Why does the enthalpy of water in Steam Tables differ from that in the PPDS System Pure databank?

Steam Tables can only be used for a stream containing only water or steam. The results are derived from the above standards. If water is selected from the PPDS System Pure databank, then this is a set of coefficients fitted to general property correlations in the same way as all other components in the main databank. This allows water to be used in mixture calculations

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Where can I find the Upper & Lower Flammability Limits of a component?

The Upper & Lower Flammability Limits are displayed on the Constants tab.

 

ProvueDB

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How can I enter text using Microsoft Word?

Follow this procedure:

  1. Click Tools|Options and select the tab Text Editing .

  2. Check the following 2 boxes

    1. Edit/view all text on the first page only

    2. Edit all text using WORD

  3. Open the datasheet for editing, and activate Microsoft Word by one of the following methods:-

    1. Double-click on the large red box

    2. From the Edit menu, select Edit using Word

    3. Right-mouse click and select Edit using Word from the pop-up menu.

  4. Insert your text, tables, etc.

  5. In Microsoft Word, click Save then select File|Exit to return to ProvueDB.

  6. Save the datasheet in ProvueDB. The text will be paginated automatically.

TIP : Whilst editing in Microsoft Word you can force a page break by pressing <Ctrl><Enter>.

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How do I print blank datasheets without "Preliminary" across the top?

Follow this procedure:

  1. Create a new equipment of the desired type

  2. Add the required datasheet, enter some data, and Save it.

  3. Sign Off, Check and Approve the equipment.

  4. Print the equipment and check No Data on the Print dialog

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Is it possible to assign an E/I engineer to CHECK and APPROVE Control datasheets (e.g.Pressure Measurement) and insert his electronic signature into the E/I box?

The procedure for issuing control datasheets is slightly different to that for process datasheets. The status fields on these sheets are all active fields so any name can be entered in the Process field and the Control/Electrical field. These sheets go straight through to Issued once they are signed off if the owner is authorised to Check and Approve his own work. If this is not the case, then the datasheets remain in the Signed Off state until a Checker and Approver issue them. It is important to understand that their names are not inserted electronically into the status fields.

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Why do I get "Equipment Not Found" when trying to print datasheet?

This is probably because you have a comma in the equipment name which is also used as a delimiter when printing equipment.  If this is the case, then rename the equipment by replacing the comma with a hyphen (-).

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Why do I get "Failed to Print. ActiveX component can't create object" when trying to print datasheets?

The file VBPrnDlg.dll needs to be registered . You can do this by dragging it over file REGSVR32.exe in the PEL\Apps folder.

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How do I transfer datasheets to another ProvueDB database?

You need to be the Project Administrator in order to perform this function. If you are then follow these steps:

  1. Export

    1. From the main menu, select Admin | Export | To Another ProvueDB Database
    2. Select the Project, Plant and the equipment you require
    3. Save as a file TRANSFER.DAT .

  2. Open the receiving ProvueDB database

  3. Import

    1. From the main menu, select Admin | Import | From Another ProvueDB Database
    2. Select the file TRANSFER.DAT
    3. Select the Project and Plant and click OK.

 

VisualFlonet

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Can I use Expansion k-values in the K-value Calculator to model a change in diameter?

Using the k-value calculator to calculate the k-value for an expansion or contraction is not appropriate for VisualFlonet because the downstream part of the pipe will have the wrong diameter. The downstream node will therefore not know that the diameter has already changed and allow for the change again. Changes in diameter should always be modeled by adding a node at the change and connecting the two pipes of different diameter to that node. VisualFlonet will automatically add appropriate amounts into the k-value and allow for the change in kinetic energy through the change in diameter.

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How does VisualFlonet calculate pump head if the operating point is outside the range of the supplied data?

VisualFlonet interpolates linearly between the pair of points closest to the working condition. If the working condition is outside the given range, it extrapolates linearly using the corresponding end two points. This extrapolation is really only intended to allow a solution to be generated, though the accuracy of such a solution is unreliable. In such a case, messages warn that a pump is being operated outside the specified range; additional pump data should be supplied and the calculation re-run.

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How do I draw T-junctions when the correct orientation is important?

VisualFlonet infers the nature of a T-junction from the pipe sizes, flow direction and order of entry of pipes. For example, for dividing flows (1 inlet, 2 outlets) VisualFlonet will assume that the first outlet is straight-through.

There are 2 possible solutions:

  1. Make the pipe diameter of the side branch very slightly smaller.

  2. Select Options from the VisualFlonet toolbar or menu then on the Project tab un-check Calculate Tee-Junction Losses .This will result in a slight loss of accuracy which you can overcome by adding your own tee loss k-values to those for the pipes.

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When modeling a number of off-takes from a common main to pump inlets, why does the first off-take have a higher pressure drop than the second even though they both have the same flow, pipe dimensions, and fluid properties?

When Calculate Tee-Junction Losses is checked, the pressure difference between a tee and a downstream node includes the pressure drop within the tee and the pressure drop within the pipe. At the first tee, the pressure drop within the tee is larger than at the second because the flow rate in the main is larger, thus the pressure drop between the tee and the pump suction node will be larger.
Un-checking Calculate Tee-Junction Losses will give a figure for the pressure drop in the pipe only, and this will be the same for each off-take.

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When running VisualFlonet why does the Licence Manager show that two tokens are being used?

Every VisualFlonet (or VisualAdrian or VisualPiper)model that is opened grabs a licence token.  When VisualFlonet (or VisualAdrian or VisualPiper) is launched via the Start | Programs | PEL menu, it opens an empty drawing and subsequently opening an existing model grabs a second token. This can be avoided by opening the existing model directly e.g. by double-clicking on it via Windows Explorer or using a recent documents shortcut. If two VisualFlonet models are opened simultaneously, only one of the two licence tokens is released when the program is closed.  The other token can be released by selecting the "Token Tidy" function in the Licence Manager.

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When running VisualFlonet why do black boxes appear as below?

This may affect users running Windows XP with Office 2007. To work around this issue, follow step below:

Right-click the desktop, click Properties, click the Themes tab, and then select Windows Classic in the Theme list. Alternatively, click the Appearance tab in the Display Properties dialog box, and then click Windows Classic style in the Windows and buttons list.

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When running VisualFlonet using Visio 2010,when a "straight" is dragged onto the connector the scissor icon does not appear, why is this?

This problem was discovered after PEL Release 19.4 was deployed and is due to change in functionality of Visio 2010.  To work around this issue, add fittings one by one and then join manually.

 

Piper

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What is the definition of the Coefficient of Contraction used in PIPER?

The Coefficient of Contraction, C c, is defined by:-
C c= 1 / ( √K c + 1)
where K cis the k-value for the contraction i.e. the number of velocity heads lost due to friction. Most of this loss is caused by eddy formation after the venacontracta, and for a sudden contraction, C c approximates to the ratio of the cross section area at the vena contracta to the cross section area downstream. C c typically has a value of around 0.67 corresponding to a K c of 0.25.
See also the Piper Technical Documentation, page 15, and standard texts such as Coulson& Richardson, Vol 1.

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Why are the calculated flow rates much lower than expected when I have bends with very small angles?

If there is two-phase or vapour flow in a bend, PIPER will check for a choke based on the pressure gradient. If a very small angle and/or radius is specified, the length of the bend is calculated to be very small and the pressure gradient can be grossly over-estimated. PIPER may then infer a choke and so reduce the flow in its search for the maximum non-choked flow. This can lead to a significant underestimate of the maximum non-choked flow.

Our advice is to always specify sensible radii for bends (at least d/ 2)and not to use bends with very small angles. We suggest that the combination of radius and bend angle should always give a length of at least d/ 2.If less than this is required, an equivalent length of straight pipe should be calculated and used instead. A reasonable rule of thumb is to use k-value * 50pipe diameters for equivalent length.

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Why are the k-values for bends calculated by PIPER different to those calculated by the K-value Calculator?

The differences are because PIPER and the K-value Calculator have different implementations of the k-value correlations. In PIPER there is a fully programmed implementation of the k-value calculation methods. This provides a result continuously varying in proportion to the r/d ratio, the Reynolds no.and the bend angle. There is also some allowance for long and short upstream and downstream tangents. The K-value Calculator on the other hand uses a k-value from a table based simply on r/ d <=1, 1 < r/ d<=1.5 or 1.5 < r/ d. It then applies a single factor for bends <90 o and another single factor for bends >90 o.No account is made for Reynolds no. or the length of upstream & downstream tangents.
In general Piper calculates a more appropriate k-value than the K-value Calculator.
K-values are very dependent on the actual construction of the fittings. Misalignment and flattening are two potential problems with bends. Adding this to the usual uncertainties such as pipe roughness, proximity of other fittings, and internal construction of couplings means that k-values can be in error by up to a factor of two.
If fittings are on average >100 pipe diameters apart, the losses due to bends are likely to be small compared with the losses due to pipes themselves.Great accuracy in k-values is not important in this case.
We recommend that in general you allow PIPER to calculate its own k-values. If the need arises for something more accurate, our advice is to calculate k-values by hand using manufacturers'/suppliers' data. The K-value Calculator should only be used for estimating k-values for fittings not directly covered by PIPER.

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Why does PIPER fail when Mass Quality is zero but converges when non-zero?

Changing the setting of Thermo Properties calculation from Accurate to Consistent improves stability and allows the calculation to converge. This is because the same model will be used for both the VLE and the thermodynamic property calculations.

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Why does increasing the k-value for a bend decrease pressure drop in choked flow?

PIPER calculates the maximum non-choked flow iteratively and always uses the same algorithm to home in on the flow rate. It is possible therefore that the same flow rate may be calculated for a range of k-values. In this range, the pressure drop will increase as the k-value increases and this will be a very steep curve because of the proximity to the choke point. If the k-value is increased a little more, however, we enter a new range of k-values with a constant but lower calculated maximum non-choked flow rate. Once again we see a pressure drop which rises rapidly with k-value but because the flow rate is smaller, the pressure drop starts at a new, lower value. Over a wide range of k-values we see the calculated flow rate falling but the pressure drop follows a saw-tooth pattern. The saw-teeth are not visible if calculations are done for just a few isolated k-values so there appears to be a somewhat random relationship between pressure drop and k-value. If the results are analysed, the calculated flow rates should be within the accuracy requested but because of the highly non-linear response of pressure drop and the fact that it's meaningless for choked flow, there is no meaning to the term "accuracy" for the calculated pressure drops. Thus, although the variation in pressure drop from one maximum non-choked flow calculation to another may be much bigger than the specified accuracy, this is not significant and should be ignored.

 

VisualAdrian

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Why does my model fail when the pipes have very small flow rates?

Adrian is not capable of solving networks where the flow is counter to the direction in the drawing.When the flow is near zero, try reversing the flow direction to get a solution. Adrian generates a default estimate for all unknown flows of 1kg/s. For a robust solution, only flows between Initial Estimate /100 and Initial Estimate * 100 are allowed. You should enter a realistic estimate for the flow rate of each pipe in the network by double-clicking one of the connectors between its fittings.

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Why do my results show pressure discontinuities at junctions?

The pressure at the end of a pipe entering a junction is not in general the same as that at the start of a pipe leaving the same junction because of the pressure changes within the junction itself. These include frictional losses as well as pressure differences due to kinetic energy changes and thus may be positive or negative.

VisualAdrian does an independent check of its results for pressure discontinuities and reports them accordingly. It should never happen that a set of results reported as converged would have discontinuities other than those at chokepoints. All apparent discontinuities at points not reported as chokes are just reflecting the pressure changes caused by the junctions.

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When running VisualAdrian why does the Licence Manager show that two tokens are being used?

Every VisualAdrian (or VisualFlonet or VisualPiper) model that is opened grabs a licence token.  When VisualAdrian (or VisualFlonet or VisualPiper) is launched via the Start | Programs | PEL menu,it opens an empty drawing and subsequently opening an existing model grabs a second token.  This can be avoided by opening the existing model directly e.g.by double-clicking on it via Windows Explorer or using a recent documents shortcut.  If two VisualAdrian models are opened simultaneously, only one of the two licence tokens is released when the program is closed.  The other token can be released by selecting the "Token Tidy" function in the Licence Manager.

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When running VisualAdrian why do black boxes appear as below?

This may affect users running Windows XP with Office 2007. To work around this issue, follow step below:

Right-click the desktop, click Properties, click the Themes tab, and then select Windows Classic in the Theme list. Alternatively, click the Appearance tab in the Display Properties dialog box, and then click Windows Classic style in the Windows and buttons list.

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When running VisualAdrian using Visio 2010, when a "straight" is dragged onto the connector the scissor icon does not appear, why is this?

This problem was discovered after PEL Release 19.4 was deployed and is due to change in functionality of Visio 2010.  To work around this issue, add fittings one by one and then join manually.

 

PEW

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Why do I get"Can't run Calculation" followed by "Can't find PEWIN.DAT"

The file PEWIN.DAT is written to %USERPROFILE%\Application Data\PEL. If your system prevents you writing to this folder you can overcome this problem by adding the Environment Variable PEL WORK to the System Properties on your PC and setting it to a temporary folder to which you do have access such as c:\Temp.

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Why do I get a much bigger pressure drop than expected using the Orifice calculation than I do with the Restrictor?

The calculations performed by Restrictor are quite different from those by Orifice.Orifice is intended for large orifice diameter, low pressure drop, pressure measurement applications whereas Restrictor is intended for low orifice diameter, high pressure drop, restrict or applications. The most important difference is that Restrictor calculates the overall pressure drop including pressure recovery downstream of the Vena Contracta while Orifice only calculates the pressure drop up to the vena contracta. For more information seethe PEW Reference Guide "Comparison of Orifice and Restrictor Calculations".

 

Logidraw

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How to print the fault trees in Landscape?

Select File | Print Setup then click Setup >>. The following dialog box appears:-



Check Landscape for the Orientation and select a printer with a PostScript driver. Click OK on the Print Setup dialog and again on the Logidraw Print Setup dialog. Select File|Print and your fault tree drawing should now print in Landscape.

If you get the following dialog stating


Click Change Setup and Retry.


Reduce the margins to say 0.2 if set to 0.5 and click OK .

If the Logidraw Print Status dialog then states Diagram size is OK , click Proceed .

 

K-value Calculator

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Can the K-value Calculator be used for small (1/4") Globe Valves?

The K-value Calculator only caters for pipe sizes 1" to 10". ESDU charts for Cast Globe Valves give information for 1/ 2" to12" and for Forged Globe Valves from 1/ 8" to2". The latter chart suggests a k-value of 1.5 for 1/ 8"valves, 5 for 1/ 4" valves and 10 for 1/ 2" valves and above.

In this particular case it is likely that the flow is choked and it may be more appropriate use PIPER. Although PIPER does not have a model for a Forged Globe Valve, it could be modeled either as an orifice using a k-value of 5, or a Cast Globe Valve by overwriting the default k-value of 7 with the k-value of 5.This is quite valid as PIPER does not make any special allowance for the detailed geometry apart from calculation of k-value.

 

VisualPiper

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When running VisualPiper why does the Licence Manager show that two tokens are being used?

Every VisualPiper (or VisualAdrian or VisualFlonet) model that is opened grabs a licence token.  When VisualPiper (or VisualAdrian or VisualFlonet) is launched via the Start | Programs | PEL menu,it opens an empty drawing and subsequently opening an existing model grabs a second token.  This can be avoided by opening the existing model directly e.g.by double-clicking on it via Windows Explorer or using a recent documents shortcut.  If two VisualPiper models are opened simultaneously, only one of the two licence tokens is released when the program is closed.  The other token can be released by selecting the "Token Tidy" function in the Licence Manager.

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When running VisualPiper why do black boxes appear as below?

This may affect users running Windows XP with Office 2007. To work around this issue, follow step below:

Right-click the desktop, click Properties, click the Themes tab, and then select Windows Classic in the Theme list. Alternatively, click the Appearance tab in the Display Properties dialog box, and then click Windows Classic style in the Windows and buttons list.

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When running VisualPiper using Visio 2010, when a "straight" is dragged onto the connector the scissor icon does not appear, why is this?

This problem was discovered after PEL Release 19.4 was deployed and is due to change in functionality of Visio 2010.  To work around this issue, add fittings one by one and then join manually.

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